by J. Sue Gagliardi

Bachelor of Arts, June 10, 1977, George Williams College

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Atlantic University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of



Virginia Beach, Virginia
October 1992

Atlantic University, 1992
Advisor: Henry Reed

The similarities and variabilities of 20 astrological analyses of one subject's birthchart were studied
according to three criteria of competence: accuracy, analysis, and synthesis. The various astrological
topics and life themes identified by the astrologers were compared and evaluated. Interviews with the
subject and others clarified and verified specific contents of the analyses. Findings are discussed in
the context of astrological theory.

It was expected that competent astrologers would be identical in birthchart calculation accuracy and,
although varying in style, would relate similar, recognizable descriptions of the subject and would
include personal insights and intuitive synthesis in their reports. The results indicate that 11 of the 20
astrological analyses exhibit competence as outlined in the three criteria; six are flawed; three are
calculated inaccurately. Expectations are met by 55 percent of the participating astrologers. However,
85 percent of the astrologers identify the subject's career and accurately forecast future conditions in
the subject's life.













Copyright 1992 by J. Sue Gagliardi
All Rights Reserved


The November/December 1990 issue of Venture Inward included the following invitation:
As part of a new course offering by Atlantic University, entitled "The Measure of All Things: Methods of
Transpersonal Testing," students will explore how to research the reliability and validity of astrological
horoscopes. A.R.E. members who are practicing astrologers are invited to participate as co-
researchers in this educational activity. If you are interested in casting and interpreting individual
horoscopes for Atlantic University students, send a work sample (natal horoscope and interpretation,
with current transits, for January 14, 1944, 3:13 a.m., EWT, Miami, FL), a resume and your fee
schedule, to Henry Reed c/o Atlantic University...(p. 8).

During the Winter of 1990-91, 19 A.R.E. astrologers sent their analyses to Professor Reed.

As a student of Atlantic University, I met Professor Reed in May 1991. I expressed interest in the
results of the above astrological research project. I explained that I was a member of A.R.E. and an
astrologer certified by the American Federation of Astrologers. Professor Reed asked me to organize
and compile the 19 astrological analyses for the students of the course "Methods of Transpersonal
Testing." He suggested that I, too, write an analysis of the subject's birthchart. I became the 20th
astrologer represented in the project. The compilation and indexing of the 20 analyses became for me
a three-credit independent study course at Atlantic University. From June to December 1991, I
compiled and indexed the 20 analyses into a single reference book for the students of Atlantic
University. The purpose of the compilation was to provide and familiarize the students with various
astrologers' work. The students now have an opportunity to choose among 20 astrologers when having
their birthcharts analyzed.

In the process of compiling the analyses I realized that this was a unique opportunity for me, as an
astrologer, to study the analyses of 20 different astrologers. Similarities, variabilities, and accuracy
could be measured. The various assessments of the subject's personality, past and present concerns,
and the overall relevance and helpfulness of the birthcharts could be appraised through interviews with
the subject.
However, if birthchart analysis is to be considered reliable, the results of 20 competent astrologers
should show definite similarities in content when applied to the same birthchart.

For the purpose of this thesis, it seemed necessary to develop a means by which the 20 analyses
could be evaluated. I established 3 criteria of competence:

1. Accuracy: Astrologers should be mathematically accurate in their birthchart calculations, whatever
system or method employed.
2. Analysis: The astrologer's analysis should present a recognizable description of the subject's
personality, concerns, and life conditions as revealed in the birthchart.
3. Synthesis: The analysis should be organized into a cohesive and understandable report with
references to what astrological factor(s) led to the astrologer's expressed opinions.

These three criteria have the advantage of being uncomplicated, relevant, and inclusive of all
astrological systems. They will be discussed and elaborated in the following chapters.

The purposes of this thesis are

1. To present similarities and variabilities among the 20 astrological analyses by using the three
criteria of competence as a basis for evaluating, comparing, and contrasting.
2. To introduce the subject's responses concerning the analyses' relevance and helpfulness.
3. To provide the students of TS 518 "The Measure of All Things: Methods of Transpersonal Testing"
with a reference text to the 20 Astrological Analyses.

The First Task

In late May 1991 I received the 19 astrological analyses from Professor Reed.
Previously, five of the analyses had been transcribed from audiotapes to typewritten
pages. Ten of the analyses had been copied to WordPerfect computer files. I was
given all 19 of the typewritten copies, as well as a disk of the 10 computer copies to
enter into my computer's WordPerfect files along with my own analysis (making a
total of 11 computer copies). For lack of time, nine analyses had not been
subsequently typed into WordPerfect.

My first task was to make three printed copies of each analysis. Secondly, I compiled
and alphabetized the 20 analyses within hard-cover binders. Each analysis was given
a code number. One compiled copy of the analyses was filed in the Atlantic
University's library for student's research in the course "Transpersonal Testing:
Measure of All Things."

Recording the Information
I read each astrologer's report several times. Certain key words were repeated in the
various reports. I designed a worksheet to record the key words that were most often used.

For example, if I wanted to find out how many astrologers used a specific key word
in describing the subject, I employed the "search" mode on my computer. If the key
word was used, the computer found it and I checked the topic space next to the
astrologer's number. I used a colored underlining pen to mark key words and phrases
in the texts of the analyses that were not on the computer files, marking the results on
the corresponding worksheet.

I examined and compared what the astrologers had to say about various astrological
categories such as the subject's Sun, Moon, and ascendant signs. Life themes studied
included the subject's relationships with parents, spouse, and friends; career
indications; and life purpose.

For each category or theme, I tabulated on worksheets how many astrologers used
the same key words or similar phrases about a topic, or whether the topic was
considered at all.

I searched for similar as well as unique descriptions of each category and theme.
For example, in describing Sun sign personality tendencies, Church (1981) cited the
Cayce readings regarding the positive and negative qualities of each Sun sign.
Capricorn's positive traits are listed as unselfishness and purity; the negative is
self-aggrandizement (p. 204).

Myrna Lofthus (1983) also used positive and negative key word qualities. She wrote
that the positive key words of Capricorn Sun sign were ambitious, responsible,
practical, efficient and patient; negative were worry, retaliation, suspicion,
stubbornness, and intolerance (p.135).

Whether or not the 20 astrologers used the same key words, most used similar terms
in describing the Capricorn personality. Concerning Capricorn practicality, some
astrologers "painted" the same picture of practicality through analogy, metaphor, or
description without using the key word "practical."

For example, one astrologer wrote that the subject "possesses a good conservative
business sense" (16). A "good conservative business sense" may be perceived as a
clarification or extension of the key word "practical."

Establishing a Degree of Commonality
An interpretation for each topic was established for both the astrological categories
and life themes based on a degree of commonality among the astrologers.
For example, 10 of the 16 astrologers who discussed the ascendant sign used the key
word "emotional" to describe the subject. By a degree of commonality, emotional
was considered an interpretive key word of a Scorpio ascendant.

Four of the astrologers did not discuss the ascendant. By excluding the ascendant
analysis, 20% of the astrological reports could be considered scanty, if not

On the other hand, two of the 10 astrologers made precise comments about the
Scorpio ascendant's emotionality. One stated that the subject wants to appear cool
and unemotional (6). Another astrologer said that the subject was not in touch with
his emotions (16). These clarifications of "emotional" were considered as synthesis,
rather than strict analysis because the astrologers included a more creative and
detailed description of the subject's emotions, rather than simply calling him

Length Variation of the 20 Analyses
The analyses were in different typing styles. Some were typed single-spaced; some
double-spaced. Five had been transcribed from audiotape to much smaller type than
I determined the length of each analysis by estimating the words on each page. I
counted the average number of words in a few sentences and how many lines were
on each page. By multiplying the number of words by the number of lines on a page,
I came up with an approximate number of words on each page.

I divided the total word count by 500 to estimate the number of single-spaced pages
each report contained: the results called "equivalent lengths."

The equivalent lengths of the 20 analyses ranged from 2 to 37 pages; the average
lengths between 7 and 14 pages (50% of the analyses).

The two longest reports (37 and 31 pages) were both transcribed from audiotapes.
Perhaps it took less time for some astrologers to "talk" a birthchart, than compose a
written analysis. I found that to be my own experience in writing/composing the
analysis. If I were to do the project again, I would audiotape it.

The Composite Analysis
I made a composite analysis incorporating the astrologers' comments on various
themes and categories. I reduced each astrologer's offering to one or two sentences
concerning each topic. Also, I edited the composite analyses by using the pronoun
"you" throughout, rather than "he," "the native," or "this person." In some instances,
capitalization and punctuation were changed. The editing was done to provide clarity
and continuity with no judgement intended concerning the astrologer's style.

Criteria of Competence
What should a client expect to receive in a birthchart report from a professional
astrologer and what are the criteria for measuring an astrologer's competence?
In a typewritten or audio taped report from a professional astrologer, a client has the
right to expect:
1. Accuracy: A copy of the client's birthchart with accurate calculations and
statements as to what systems (tropical, sidereal, house system, etc.) the astrologer is using.
2. Analysis: A discussion of the clients Sun, Moon, ascendant and midheaven signs, as well as their
planetary rulership connections. The report should include an analysis of the individual's personality,
self-image, relationships, career indications, and other life conditions.
3. Synthesis: A discussion of the strengths, talents, challenges, adjustments, and         obstacles which
may manifest in the client's life experience and what astrological data led to the astrologer's opinion.
Any repeating themes in the birthchart should be stressed.

The worksheets were helpful in tabulating the criteria as well as other results such as
page lengths of the reports, house system employed, and calculations.

Several times during this study I interviewed the subject on other various points.
I wanted to know:
1. What was the impact of so much information?
2. What style or content of information was having what kind of effect?
3. Did the transit reports reflect the present conditions of the subject's life?

Various respected authors are cited in this thesis to substantiate or clarify some topics
being discussed. Edgar Cayce, Myrna Lofthus, Alan Oaken, and Dane Rudyhar are
the main sources for astrological theory and philosophy.

I cite Edgar Cayce because of his connection with A.R.E (as founder) as well as the
depth of astrological information found in his compiled material.

Myrna Lofthus and Alan Oaken are chosen because I believe that their works
express the transpersonal ideology to which many contemporary astrologers aspire.

With his writings, Dane Rudyhar started the upliftment of the astrological
community-mind, from prediction-centered to transpersonal-centered, as far back as

To my knowledge, there are no published data on this particular type of astrological
research: 20 astrologers analyzing one birthchart. However, there are extensive data
published consisting of vast numbers of birthcharts examined for particular factors
such as careers, personality traits, diseases, etc.(See Doane, 1956 and Gauquelin, 1982).

Matrix and Kepler computer software programs were employed to verify the
astrologers' birthchart calculations.

The term "horoscope" was not used in this thesis, except in rare instances, because
of its obvious associations with newspapers' daily horoscopes. Contemporary terms
for a natal horoscope include birthchart or birth chart.

The names of the astrologers and the subject are not used in this thesis. The subject is
referred to as Friend or subject; the astrologers by numbers 1 through 20.


Definition of Birthchart
A birthchart is a map of the solar system as it appears at a particular moment, from
a specific place on earth. The birthchart includes the signs of the Zodiac as a
backdrop of the solar system. From the viewpoint of earth, the Zodiac is a path,
called the ecliptic, through which the Sun, Moon, and planets appear to travel. The
Zodiac is divided into 12 signs, which are not to be confused with the 12
constellations of the same name.

Edgar Cayce spoke about the study of birthcharts:
For, as given from the beginning: the planets, the stars are given for signs and for seasons and for
years; that many may indeed find their closer relationship in the contemplation of the universe. For
man has been made a co-creator with the Godhead. Not that man is good or bad according to the
position of the stars; but the position of the stars indicates what the individual entity has done about
God's plan in earth activities, during the periods when man has been given the opportunity to enter into
material manifestations. (5124-1)

As requested in the Venture Inward invitation, all astrologers sent a birthchart
(natal horoscope) along with their analysis.

The Significance of a Birthchart.
Many contemporary astrologers regard a birthchart as a map or tool for raising
consciousness. Jungian analytical astrologer Alice O. Howell wrote:
chart, to me, yields a description of how a person is likely to process experience. As Carl Jung wrote,
'In the end, all reality is psychic reality.' In view of this, astrology does not
(in the case of an individual horoscope) describe the actuality of a situation but rather how each
person would tend to respond to it....What the chart does is describe the ways in which we are likely to
experience, and because this can be quite accurate, it can help us become more conscious of how
we tend to see things. The next to realize that we don't have to do it only this way, but have
free will and free choice. We can use our newly-won understanding to guide us to new growth...much of
what the chart points to is our habitual or unconscious way of reacting to things...the chart becomes a
guide to self-acceptance and self-realization (p. 2,4).

Some astrologers consider the spiritual/soul dimension of a birthchart. One of the
20 astrologers wrote:

"The birthchart is a mandala of your soul. The planetary pictures within the birthchart reflect the
particular rhythm and melody of your life. Edgar Cayce held that a birthchart is more a picture of where
you have been, rather than where you are going. Whether you create a symphony in the world, or a
discordant note, is subject to the choices you make, the attitudes you hold, and your will” (7).

The Problem of Birth Time
One main concern of astrologers is the correct time of birth. Even when the birth time
is recorded on the birth certificate, often it is incorrect. This is because of
discrepancies in the definition of birth time, the hurried duties involved in the delivery
room, and the insignificance given to the exactitude of birth time by the medical
profession. Unless a delivery room nurse is familiar with and sympathetic to
astrological theory, the birth time recorded may be 15 or more minutes off! I have
asked at least four delivery room nurses, "When do you record a baby's birth time?"
One nurse said, "Whenever I get time to look at the clock." Another nurse told me
that sometimes the delivery room was so busy that she could only record birth times
at the end of her shift: she estimated the birth time for each child. I suspect that these
cases may be common procedures, rather than exceptions, in birth time recording.

Contemporary astrologers would most likely agree with Alan Oaken (1988),

"A child is considered as being born when it takes in its first breath. At that moment, all the cosmic
energy which is in the environment is taken into the child through its life's breath. This breath or prana
is the first impulse of the life-force which starts the child on its road to an independent destiny outside
the physical womb of the mother" (p. 17).

Isabel M. Hickey (1989) wrote,
"In the Aquarian Age more and more individuals will demand that the exact time of the first breath be
clocked in the delivery room and written down at that time" (p. 262).

Birthchart Calculations
To a professional astrologer, the mathematical calculations of a birthchart are simple
and precise. They may be done by hand with the aid of reference books, but take
less time by computer. It takes the average astrologer about 30 minutes to calculate
a birthchart by hand, with major aspects noted. An average computer can do the
work in two minutes, saving hundreds of hours yearly for professional astrologers.
Computers are accurate if the information given to the astrologer is correct and if the
astrologer types the correct data into the computer.

When calculating a birthchart, there is only one correct answer. If Matrix and Kepler
computer software programs are given the correct birth information, their answers
will be the same.

Astrologers, properly instructed in the calculation of a birthchart, derive the same
degree and minute on the ascendant as the Matrix and Kepler computer programs.

A birthchart is calculated for the exact moment of birth (first breath), from an specific
place on earth, through the conversion of birth time to sidereal (star) time, and by
using the birthplace coordinates expressed in longitude and latitude. Sidereal time is
measured by the earth's daily rotation, as is our 24-hour clock time. However,
sidereal time is approximately four minutes shorter than 24 hours because it is
measured by how long it takes for the earth to rotate to the same fixed celestial point
each day. The four-minute daily time increment is listed under the "sidereal time"
column in reference books called Ephemeris/Ephemerides. also list daily positions of the Sun, Moon,
and planets for any given year.

Calculated sidereal time of birth establishes the houses (See House Systems following)
of the birthchart wheel. The exact degree and minute of the ascendant, midheaven,
and other houses (12 in all) are calculated precisely (interpolated) from reference
books called Table of Houses. Popular house systems include Placidian, Koch, and
Equal, all of which were represented in the 20 astrological analyses.

House Systems
A house system is used for dividing the birthchart into twelve areas or departments
(i.e., houses) concerning an individual's life experience. This division is done by
interpolation, a process aided by the use of logarithms, calculator, or computer.
The most popular house system in the United States is the Placidian system. Until the
1960's this was the only house system readily available for American astrologers to
use. Concerning house systems, Robert Hand (1981) wrote:
Houses are one of the basic symbol systems used in horoscope delineation, yet at the same time they
are one of astrology's greatest sources of difficulty. Their central idea is simple: it is that planets affect
different areas of life, action, and experience according to where they are located with respect to the
horizon of the birthplace....If one is going to talk about houses, one is moreor less forced to choose a
house system. (pp. 255, 257).

House Systems Used by Other Experts
Myrna Lofthus (1983) advocated the Placidian system of houses in agreement with
70% of the A.R.E. astrologers. (p. 10).

Robert Hand (1983) stated, "My present choice is the Koch or Birthplace system
of houses." (p. 257).

A discussion of the Equal house system rationale is found in the momentous work
of Derek and Julia Parker (1990, p. 175).

House Systems Used by the 20 Astrologers
The A.R.E. astrologers used various house systems:

14 used Placidian
4 used Koch
1 used Equal

One astrologer did not state which house system was used. As the birthchart
ascendant was incorrect by four degrees, it was hard to determine which house
system was used.

Results of the Different House Systems Used
The difference of the subject's birthchart houses was only three degrees between the
Placidian, Koch, and Equal house systems.

In many other birthcharts, there is a greater contrast between the various house
systems. Planets may fall in different houses resulting in dissimilar interpretations.
However, in the subject's birthchart, there was no difference in interpretations,
whatever house system was used by 19 of the 20 astrologers.

The choice of a house system is largely a matter of preference and personal
experience. Which system is "correct," is still debated among astrologers.

The Calculation Accuracy of the 20 Astrologers
The subject's exact ascendant is 15 degrees, 02 minutes of Scorpio, verified by
Matrix and Kepler computations. If astrologers calculated the ascendant to within
three minutes of exactitude, I considered the calculations accurate. This was a
subjective decision on my part which made allowance for computer systems other
than Matrix and Kepler. Also, the figure of three minutes appeared in other instances.
There was three minutes' difference between the Coral Gables and Miami birthplaces
as expressed on the ascendant. (See Incorrect Birth Data.) Also there was three
minutes' variance on the houses between the Koch, Placidian, and Equal house
systems used by the various astrologers.

Allowing the three minutes' leeway, 16 of the astrologers (80%) were accurate in

If the three minutes' leeway were disallowed, only 12 astrologers (60%) were
accurate in the calculation result of 15 degrees and 02 minutes of Scorpio on the
The four results that I considered incorrect:
15 degrees Scorpio, 07 minutes.
14 degrees Scorpio, 44 minutes.
15 degrees Scorpio, 35 minutes.
19 degrees Scorpio, 00 minutes.

For all practical purposes, all of the astrologers calculated the correct ascendant,
midheaven, and planets' signs, but three of the astrologers' calculation mistakes on the
ascendant were from 28 minutes to 4 degrees. One astrologer was border-line at
five minutes off.

The Need for Accuracy
It is important to have an accurate birthchart for one main reason: the projected timing
of events (forecasting) in a person's life. Every major event in a person's life will be
reflected in the birthchart by progressed aspects between the ascendant, midheaven,
and planets. This fact may be verified by any competent astrologer.
Progression is done by traditional formulas and projects the birthchart forward in time.
It is through the progression of a birthchart that an astrologer forecasts present as
well as future decision-making times in a client's life. (The birthchart may also be
projected backwards in time. This process is used in rectification or confirmation that
a given birth time is correct.)

If the birthchart's ascendant, midheaven, and planets have not been calculated
correctly, there will be little or no correlation between the progressed birthchart and
current decisions or major events in the person's life including marriage, moves,
promotions, honors, induction into the service, children's births, the deaths of close
relatives and friends, or any event which the person deems important.

A difference of one degree off in computing the midheaven/ascendant axis can result
in a whole year off in the timing of events using progressions and transits.

One degree of a Zodiacal sign is equal to four minutes of clock time. Therefore, if the
birth time is reported inaccurately by eight minutes, the midheaven/ascendant will be
incorrect by two degrees; the forecasting of major events in the subject's life will be
two years off. Also, nothing in the client's past will correlate with the birthchart.
Incorrect Birth Data

If accuracy is of such importance, what happens if the subject gives the astrologer
incorrect birth data? This was indeed the case in the Venture Inward invitation.
Miami, Fl was given as the birthplace. If fact, the subject was born in Coral Gables,
FL. The longitude and latitude of Miami, Fl are 80W11 and 25N47; Coral Gables
are 80W16 and 25N45.

However, the difference of five minutes of longitude and two minutes of latitude
makes a small variance in the calculation results. The two cities are very close and,
for a city as large as Miami, Coral Gables may be considered a suburb. The two
birthcharts vary by only three minutes' difference on the ascendant.

In Friend's case, the incorrect birth data given was insignificant to the results.
However, this example of birth data error is reported to point out how little attention
some people pay when reporting birth data to an astrologer. The exact birth date,
time, and place, as shown on the birth certificate, is of utmost importance. One should
not "guess" when giving birth data to an astrologer.


A.R.E. Astrologers
All of the twenty astrologers were members of the Association for Research and
Enlightenment (A.R.E), so it was expected that they had certain similarities in
philosophical outlook. Since Edgar Cayce was the founder of A.R.E. and had much
to say about astrological analysis, it was surprising to me that only four of the 20
astrologers mentioned Edgar Cayce or his philosophy in their analyses. I expected
more references to Cayce's astrological material, particularly concerning the subject's
ideals and purpose in life
For example, one astrologer wrote:

"You are a mystic, innately, and the following extract from Edgar Cayce could well have been given for
you:- 'The influences in Neptune make for associations with the mysterious forces in action in the
universe, as well as in the experience of self' (497-1, 12.6.1887)....The words that might be given,
reflective of the Ideal are from the Bible: "Comfort ye My people," and we find in this all the qualities
that denote attendance and waiting, healing and harvesting, asking little for the self (1)."

The Astrologers' Initial Approach
Because of popular Sun sign astrology, included under "Horoscope" columns in
leading newspapers, it was expected that most people knew their Sun sign and a
few astrological key words about themselves. Sun sign analysis was a familiar
introduction to seven of the astrologers' reports.

Five astrologers approached the analysis with an overall view or general analysis of
the birthchart.

One example of an "overall approach:

Overall initial impressions of this birth pattern indicate a life that is to be lived creatively, in pursuit of
knowledge and in teaching others. Your destiny, in a very real sense, is to follow the Unknown...Hence
innately a scholar, and yet there is a deep personal involvement in your work/studies. Your personal life
and discoveries, moreover, seem to touch upon the development of large numbers of people. You are
a true artist, though perhaps not in a formal sense, and your vocational/career life, which stands out as
being very important to your overall life purposes, draws upon deeply creative levels of self (1).

Two astrologers initiated the report with an analysis of the ascendant sign. One wrote:

In meeting 'others,' your ascendant Sign is usually the first impression that they receive about you. It is
the 'face' that you show the world because it is safe for you to do so. Your Scorpio survival mechanism
has been layered from many years of experience...naturally adopted and sculpted by you as you have
interrelated with others in your environment...For that reason the ascendant (persona) has in its
makeup many of the 'shoulds,' and 'oughts' that you have decided to assume as your own (7).

Two began their analysis with astrological theory--a teaching approach.

Four astrologers started their analysis in a unique and creative manner. One began
the analysis with a discussion of the four angles of the chart; one with the planetary
pattern of the T-Square; one with a discussion of the planetary ruler of the chart, Pluto.

The most creative and synthesized approach listed six major themes of the subject's
life. The first page:

Major Themes in the Life
1. Extreme intellectual emphasis with talent for writing, speaking, reporting,
teaching and any form of communication.
2. Difficulty in partnerships, marriage and relationships due to unlovingness
in past lives/lack of domestic harmony.
3. Personal transformation and regeneration through the career.
4. Difficulties with self-centeredness, "me-first" attitude and headstrong,
self-willed desire for independence.
5. Problematic concerns with power, control and authority figures.
6. Childhood problems with a parent, probably the mother, that created
hypersensitivity, insecurity, fear and an overly perfectionist attitude (6).

The main considerations of the birthchart were established at the beginning of this
report; personality, abilities, as well as relationship and career inclinations. Each of
the points was then elaborated in considerable detail. The report included the
planetary positions and aspects that influenced the astrologer's analysis. This
astrologer rated the highest overall in the three criteria of competence.

Astrologers' Style
The 20 astrologers' composition style made little difference regarding competence.
Some astrologers preferred to list the twelve areas (houses) of the subject's life
experience and discussed what each meant. Other astrologers discussed the sign
qualities of the Sun, Moon, and planets, with less attention paid to the houses. Many
astrologers considered the aspects between the planets as the most significant factors
of the birthchart.
However, five of the 20 analyses were structured like computer service reports.
Computer service reports are organized in short paragraphs. They list many isolated
"facts" without regarding the "whole" person as reflected in the birthchart. Computer
service reports are designed for "masses" of people. Therefore, no synthesis of
birthchart factors is involved.
Astrological "Jargon"
Some astrology clients prefer that the astrologer not use technical terms or jargon
when analyzing their birthchart. A person wrote to me:

I have had many excellent and useful astrology readings over the years. However, I have resisted
learning and remembering basic astrology terms like ascendant, aspects, and trines, let alone yods
and t-squares. I know there are many others like me, who firmly believe in the value of the information,
but do not care to add such 'technical' terms to their daily understanding.

While honoring a client's preference, it has been my experience that for as many people who do not
want their birthcharts discussed in technical terms, there are as many who do want the technical
information. Unless an astrologer is meeting a client one-on-one and can verify his or her preference, it
should not be assumed. In a student research situation, such as the
Venture Inward invitation, the use
of technical terms seemed important.

Two of the 20 astrologers found unique methods in solving this dilemma.
One astrologer analyzed the birthchart in non-technical language, but noted the
astrological factors in the left-hand margins. The other astrologer also used
non-technical language, but noted the astrological factors in parentheses at the end
of each paragraph.

The Factors of a Birthchart
Personifying the astrological factors in a birthchart is a method of simplification. The
ancients personified the planets by considering them as Gods and Goddesses. We
continue to use the ancient names of the God and Goddess planets. However, most
contemporary astrological/psychological theories contend that the planets represent
archetypal ideas common to all humankind. As archetypes, these ideas are imbedded
within the very "stuff" (physical/emotional/mental/spiritual DNA, so to speak) that
underlies our common, evolving consciousness. (See Howell, 1987).

Birthchart factors include planets, signs, houses, and aspects. Comparing a birthchart
to "Theater," the planets are like actors; signs are like costumes; houses are like a
stage; aspects are like action/scripts. Through the Theater simile, Friend's Capricorn
Sun in the third house quincunxing Jupiter becomes:

The Sun (actor 1) is in Capricorn (costume) in the third house (stage 3) interacting (action/script) with
Jupiter (actor 2) in the 10th house (stage. 10).

One astrological interpretation of these factors:

Your individuality [Sun] is based in the sign of Capricorn which is a very ambitious and enterprising
placement. The focus of your ego [Sun] is in the 3rd House [stage 3] of communication indicating a
need to shine intellectually...It is very important [Jupiter] that you receive recognition in your chosen

Capricorn Sun Sign: Individuality, Ego, Yang Principle

Analyzing the subject's Sun sign, one of the 20 astrologers wrote:

Almost everyone knows their Sun sign, even if they know nothing else about astrology. The sign where
the Sun is located at birth is a very important factor in a natal horoscope. The Sun represents who you
really are--your individuality and personal statement of being. The Sun in Capricorn is goal oriented.
Capricorn is the sign of achievement, also the sign of structure, tradition and status quo. Respect and
recognition are important. In your chart, the Sun is located in the 3rd house of communication, possible
public speaking...(4).

Seventeen of the astrologers analyzed the subject's Capricorn Sun sign.

Nine of the 17 astrologers used the word "practical" in their analysis.

Nine of the 17 astrologers revealed that the third house placement of Friend's
Capricorn Sun indicated "communication" would be a career probability. Six
astrologers mention writing in particular.

Seventeen astrologers mentioned teaching or education as a probable career.

Planetary Aspects
A planet's interpretation by sign is clarified by its house position. (For convenience
of expression, astrologers call the Sun and Moon planets. We do know that the Sun
is a star; the Moon a satellite.)

A third consideration in birthchart analysis is planetary aspects. Aspects are
designated by the division of the 360 degree circle by a number.

For example, dividing a circle (360 degrees) by two results in an opposition
(180 degrees). Two or more planets 180 degrees apart are considered in an
opposition aspect.

Dividing a circle by three results in a trine (120 degrees); dividing by four produces a
square (90 degrees); dividing by six produces a sextile (60 degrees); and so forth.
Traditionally, aspects formed by the division of two and its multiples are rated
challenging; aspects formed by three and its multiples are called flowing or easy.
Friend's chart contains 27 conventional aspects. All of the astrologers mention one
or more of the 27 aspects in their analyses. The subject's Moon aspects were the
most frequently mentioned.

Virgo Moon: Emotions, Anima, Yin Principle
Concerning the Moon's meaning in a birthchart, Myrna Lofthus (1983) wrote:

The basic personality function of this planet is to stimulate our responses to the conditions we live in...
the moon is the sum total of all our past lives' habits and experiences combined into our present
personality....Picture the moon as a mirror which has collected our feelings and experiences from our
other lives and now reflects them to others through our personality. (pp. 66, 68).

Eighteen of the 20 astrologers included the Moon's aspects in their analyses.

Sixteen astrologers noted that the subject would attract challenging relationships,
implied by the Virgo Moon and its aspects.

Three astrologers discussed the probability of difficulties with the mother.
Nine astrologers used the term "perfection" or "perfectionist" in describing the
subject's Virgo Moon personality.

The Cayce Material
Edgar Cayce, a noted psychic and founder of the A.R.E., gave 2500 "Life" readings
regarding astrology. He gave those readings while in a trance and knew nothing about
astrology while in a normal waking state.
An interesting comparison between Friend's birthchart analyses and the Cayce
material (readings) was noted. Concerning the Moon, and also the Moon's adverse
relationship to Venus, Mars and Uranus, Cayce (1985) said:

Being under those influences of Moon and Sun also, we find in the Sun the strength and in the Moon
the weakness (2990-2).

...the Moon those various changing phases of man's consciousness, and the Sun as of
righteousness. (3037-1)

The Sun indicates strength and life, while the Moon indicates change...5746-1).
As to those influences in the life of the present plane's forces, as exercised in the force of Moon and
Venus, we find this brings many of those troublesome forces to all conditions relating either to the
physical or bodily love, and of the strange marital relations that may exist in the present plane (2553-8).

Venus we find afflicted with the Moon...Thus we will find there are periods when the entity is attracted
to, and attracted by, the opposite sex. Let not thy overfeelings in such bring any period of anxiety or of
doubts in these directions, or to cause self to do that for which it would be sorry--just for the gratifying
of a desire (1664-2).

In Venus we find the greater ruling influence; afflicted, as may be astrologically termed in the Moon.
Thus we find, in this entity, one beautiful in purpose, in hopes, in desires; of the universal nature. Oft not
understood by those where that of material love life would find expression...Those that are attracted to
the entity are those who need the entity for that of, oft, the sacrifice the entity must make in its own
emotions to be of a helpful influence in the experience of the associate. Thus may the world, may
individuals find the entity as rather strange, rather distant; and yet the entity giving--giving of self makes
all influences in the lives of those the entity meets better for having known or been in association with
the entity (2620-2).

Mars as an affliction in the Moon...One, without respect of will, that may be termed by others as quick-
tempered; oft regretting the expressions of self, yet would not acknowledge it for many reasons best
known to self...(1740-1).

...when there is the ultra-activity or influence of the various phases of the Moon...the
entity may be called one that is moody and eccentric at such times (2108-1).

Cayce referred to the Sun as strength and the Moon as weakness. This referral
supports the astrological-Jungian principles which define the birthchart Sun as the
Ego (center of consciousness/Yang principle); the Moon as the Anima (mediator to
the personal unconscious/Yin principle).

Some A.R.E. Astrologer's Comments

Some comments of the astrologers concerning the subject's Virgo Moon compared
with the Cayce material:

The Virgo Moon could manifest as a highly critical nature leading to anima conflicts with mates and
close associates...Moon squaring Venus may indicate trouble in marriage or unwise sexual
involvement...With the Moon squaring either Mars or Uranus, relationships with women would be
problematical...The Mars element may make the native prone to emotional aggression and
intimidating outbursts. The Uranus element brings rapid mood shifts and emotional unpredictability (2).
(Compare with the above Cayce readings 2553-8, 2108-1 ).

The Moon in Virgo is a very perfectionist attitude and often worrisome placement, hard to handle
emotionally. The Moon in challenging relationship to Mars and Uranus...makes for difficulties in holding
relationships as you tend to draw in brilliant, but high-strung people (12).(Compare with the above
Cayce Reading 2620-2).

Virgo Moon...if it's challenged, then there could be a nervousness--a worrisome insecurity--a fussiness
and an inability to see the forest for the trees...we would have to say that the desire nature, Venus, is
working at cross-currents to the personal security need, the Moon, and is working counter-current to
Mars/Uranus. I believe that this person could be acting and behaving in a way that works against or
moves against what he or she desires in partnership situations (19). (Compare with the above Cayce
readings 1664-2, 1740-1).

Virgo Moon at its worst is picky, over-analytical and critical...the picture that we get is one of a brilliant
flowering cactus which everyone loves to look at, but doesn't dare touch--it's too prickly...(7). (Compare
with the above Cayce reading 1740-1).

Even though the Cayce readings were given almost 50 years ago, one can see the
similarities between Cayce's personality analyses and those of contemporary

The Mars/Uranus Factors
The subject has a Mars/Uranus conjunction in his birthchart. A conjunction means
that two planets are together and powerfully combine their energies. Mars and Uranus
are considered to produce volatile, explosive, and disruptive energy when in
conjunction. This energy may be expressed through the subject's personality in
various ways.

Cayce stated that negative Mars energy may be identified as anger ("madness"
[900-10]), in another reading he said: "From Mars we find the urges for activity, the intenseness with
which the entity gives itself to that it chooses" (3299-1).

Considering Uranus he said: "From the Uranian influences we find the extremist" (1206-3).

Putting the two factors of Uranus and Mars together we assume that the subject may
be an extremist in anything that Uranus aspects, if he chooses. Cayce always
cautioned others to be aware of choice and will in any given situation.
According to the Cayce material: Uranus with Mars shows possible urges for extreme activity, extreme
drive and energy, and extreme anger. Uranus with the Moon shows possible emotional extremes.

Uranus with Venus shows possible extremes in the love life. Synthesizing the Uranus, Mars, Venus,
and Moon aspects, one astrologer stated,

"Your moods are so changeable and you are so restless and full of energy that it can be very difficult
for others to deal with you on a regular basis" (15).

Scorpio Ascendant: Self-projection and Persona
Jeanne Avery (1982) wrote a definitive work on the 12 ascendant signs and their
meanings. Concerning the ascendant, she explained:

The ascendant is interpreted as indicative of the individual's personality as well as his appearance. It
also indicates the circumstances of childhood. The rising sign is one of the most important parts of a
chart because it describes the influences that become a part of a person's being the very moment he
takes his first breath. It describes, most of all, the vehicle chosen by the soul to carry us through life and
the earth plane experience...More importantly, it indicates the decisions he makes about survival...The
ascendant can act like a wall or a facade that an individual erects around himself. It is often like a
mask that he hides behind, simply because it is concerned with survival issues...It is also how a
person allows others to see him...The ascendant also describes the psychological devices we use to
keep us safe (pp. 16-17).

The A.R.E. Astrologers' Analyses
Sixteen of the 20 astrologers analyzed the subject's ascendant.
In addition to emotional, nine of the 16 astrologers used the word intense or intensity
in describing the subject.

Some dictionary definitions of intense: Of great intensity; extreme in degree, strength,
or size; involving or showing great concentration or strain; deeply felt and profound.
Even though I had used the term myself, I felt that "intense" was generic; not precise
enough. It seemed more like a modifier, i.e., intensely charming or intensely emotional.
I interviewed four of Friend's acquaintances, asking whether "intense" was a good
description of his personality, presence and appearance?

All four agreed that "intense" did indeed describe Friend's personality. The most
graphic comment was, "When he walks into a room, it's like his presence just fills it!"
Evidently, some people consider Friend to be intensely intense!
The fact that Friend has the powerful ability to charm and hold people's attention is
shown in the birthchart by Pluto (ascendant co-ruler) in the ninth house, but in the sign
of the tenth (career). Pluto makes flowing, sextile aspects to the other two
transpersonal planets, Uranus and Neptune. This is highly indicative of people who
have the gift and opportunities of becoming a "transpersonality."

Transpersonality Defined
In 1987 I coined the word "transpersonality" to describe a person who lives beyond
personal concerns and in accordance with transpersonal values and ideals.
One example of a transpersonal ideal is in regarding oneself as part of a larger whole;
not separated, but one with all.

Puryear (1982) elaborated on Edgar Cayce's view of oneness: "The primary premise
of the Edgar Cayce readings is the oneness of all force. The One Force is the Spirit of God and all that
we know or experience is a manifestation of that force" (p. 38).

Dane Rudhyar (1980) wrote:
...the concept of holarchy inevitably leads to the realization that a state of more-than-individual (or
'transindividual') existence is not only a possibility, but the only unglamorous, realistic and  practical
way to give meaning and direction to the present day struggle of individuals and nations toward what
many people, often naively, call the New Age (p.xv).

Rudhyar's "transindividual" is nearly synonymous with transpersonality. Since he was
deeply impressed with Jungian theory, Rudhyar probably coined transindividual to
coincide with Jung's concept of individuation. In Jung's theory, individuation was a
process of consciousness unfoldment that normally began in some individuals during
their second half of life.

On the other hand, transpersonality is more closely associated with a person who is
continually striving to understand, develop, and refine his or her basic personality
structure, ever aware of life's interconnectedness. A transpersonality is convinced that
"as I evolve, the world evolves," and acts as if the smallest increase of consciousness
in himself increases the consciousness of everyone. This transpersonal ideal answers,
"yes" to the question, "Am I my brother's keeper?"

Pluto: Transpersonal Ruler of the Birthchart
In Friend's birthchart, Pluto is the ruler of the birthchart. Pluto is conjunct (together
with) the North Node in the ninth house of teaching, publishing, higher ideals, and
spiritual understanding. As such, Pluto brings transpersonal energy within the subject's
personal grasp; spiritually, mentally, emotionally and physically. Friend must
consciously decide how to unify this powerful transpersonal energy with his personal


Beyond calculation accuracy and analysis, the greatest talent of competent astrologers
lies in the skill with which they synthesize factors in a birthchart. Astrological synthesis
is the ability to express viewpoints and conclusions based on the unique combination
of acquired astrological knowledge, solid experience, and intuitive perception.
Isolated points of analysis are like separated pieces of an intricate puzzle. They only
make sense when all of the pieces are put together, i.e., synthesized.
The following examples show the subtle difference between strict analysis and
creative synthesis:

Moon in Virgo: The Moon in the sign Virgo indicates an exacting, hardworking, practical nature. There
is great regard for neatness and cleanliness in personal hygiene and housekeeping. These people
are particular about food and diet and concerned about health...There can be excessive
preoccupation with inconsequential detail and a carping and critical attitude (15).

We see your greatest successes are going to come when you adapt a form of communications
through your behavior and actions that not only support your emotional needs and desires, but also
allows understanding, or at least an open communication of other people's love without
attachment, whether or not it makes the other person love you more, is a very difficult lesson to learn,
but you are indeed seeking to separate yourself from an unconscious and self-defeating need for
approval (19).

The first example contains statements of strict analysis. The statements are valid and
an essential part of an astrological report. However, if an astrological report consists entirely of
analytic information, it would resemble a computer service report. One may not want to pay a high fee
to a professional astrologer for the same information that can be purchased from an inexpensive
computer service.

The second example is a fine synthesis of Friend's emotional nature with an integration
of the Moon's factors: T-square, trine to Mercury, 10th house placement, etc. It
contains subtle and discerning advice, which he may find helpful. However, if an astrological report
consists entirely of synthesis, it seems like a psychic reading. One is at a loss to know where the
opinions, statements, and information came from if they are not backed up with some astrological
precepts or principles. Philosophic views, intuitive insights, and spiritual advice are often appreciated,
but should not be the whole of an "astrological" report.

For nominal cost, accuracy and a basic analysis of a birthchart may be obtained
through a reputable astrological computing service. However, a competent astrologer
provides synthesis, including intuitive insights, details, and discernment of which no
computer is capable.

Planetary Patterns
Planetary patterns are formed by three, or more, planets connected through three,
or more, aspects.

Friend's Capricorn Sun forms one planetary pattern in the birthchart. The pattern is
called a yod, which is comprised of one planet making two quincunx aspects
(150 degrees) to two other planets which are 60 degrees apart.
Robert Hand (1981) called the yod a "twelfth-harmonic syndrome" and stated:

Even though the yod has the static, passive qualities of the three-series, it can also signify crises in
which the energies have to be faced directly and specific courses of action taken in order to work out
positively. Thus the yod contains the germ of its own resolution in a way that simple quincunxes do not
(pp. 146-147).

Concerning the yod, Myrna Lofthus (1983) wrote,
A yod has been called 'the hand of God' and 'the finger of destiny.'...The two inconjuncts (quincunxes)
indicate a need for the individual to adjust his thinking and emotional responses to the planets, signs
and houses involved. If spiritual knowledge is not sought with the view of uniting the higher self, the
inconjuncts will bring health and work difficulties according to the planets and signs involved. The
sextile indicates an opportunity to be productive and/or creative . However, the energy must be
consciously used in order to benefit (pp. 252-253).

A.R.E. Astrologers and the Yod Planetary Pattern
Only five of the astrologers discussed the yod. Specific comments of the five

The yod is a great source of creativity, and it brings an almost magical quality to much that you do: the
ability, for instance, to tell a story and to convey ideas in ways that captivate the imagination of the
listener (1).

In this yod, the Sun is the focal planet through which some major life adjustments must be made, and
Jupiter and Saturn, which blend well together offer some kind of opportunity when you reach a detour
sign along the road of life (4).

...the relationship of the Sun to Jupiter and Saturn adds a very important dimension to this horoscope....
There can be limitations in the sense of taking on some sort of an attitude that will alienate people that
you must depend upon for support, or co-workers who balk at the authority that they see in you. They
feel as if you are too heavy handed. There's a strong dedication to work, though...If you are in a
position to make laws, or write things that are going to be published on a large scale--this is where the
blending of these influences can come out for the good of everyone , and where you can make a
contribution (5).

Your central purpose in life may revolve around continuous personal adjustments and major self-
correction. You need to alter the manner with which you demonstrate your will, power, authority and self-
pride...You tend to overextend yourself, become too involved with work, doing your own thing, or letting
others take advantage of you...When you have learned how to handle your ego, you will undergo a
dramatic change in character (6).

So, as you consciously "play" back and forth between the two energies of Jupiter and Saturn you find
yourself needing to expand self towards the world and its people. Then you very much need a time to
withdraw into self and privacy to recharge and gather your forces. All of this in time and practice
becomes a very natural rhythm and melody of your life's symphony (7).

The five astrologers who discussed the yod were aware of the significance of
planetary patterns within a birthchart. The Sun quincunxing Jupiter and Saturn is not
nearly as significant as the fact that Jupiter and Saturn are connected, too, forming a
completed planetary pattern.

The T-Square Planetary Pattern
Perhaps the most complex placement in Friend's birthchart is the Virgo Moon. The
Moon is involved in a planetary pattern called a t-square and includes Venus, Mars,
and Uranus. A t-square is comprised of an opposition (180 degrees) between two or
more planets, with both ends of the opposition forming 90 degree angles with another

Some astrologers include Saturn in the t-square because of its opposition to Venus,
as well as the fact that Venus is the opposite midpoint between Mars and Saturn,
and Uranus and Saturn.
Four astrologers specifically mentioned the t-square pattern:

The moon's square to the conjunction is virtually exact, making it a powerful part of the native's
character. With the Moon squaring either Mars or Uranus, relationships with women would be
problematical. The fact that the square is to a nearly exact conjunction of these two volatile planets
exacerbates this factor....The Uranian element here brings rapid mood shifts and emotional
unpredictability. The Martian element may make the native prone to emotional aggression and
intimidating outbursts. Moon squaring Venus may indicate trouble in marriage or unwise sexual
involvement. Venus opposite the conjunction could bring overemphasis of the gratification principle, a
taste for exotic or aberrant sexual experience, etc. All of these factors coalesce in a trait constellation
which could be very problematical in intimate human relationships....T-squares are very dynamic
patterns and provide very clear directions for growth. The short leg of the square is the key. In this case
it is the Moon which rules the flow of empathy and emotion....The Virgo Moon could manifest as a
highly critical nature leading to anima/us conflicts with mates and close associates. Again, the key is
to try and empathize and not emote in critical or angry ways. (2)

You are a person who is easily hurt with a quick temper and a hypersensitivity to the
surrounding environment. You are able to readily pick up on the feelings of others and absorb the
atmosphere of your immediate environment. When in the company of negative persons, you will
absorb their negativity so it is very important for you to surround yourself with positive thinking people.
Security is important to you and you are likely to withdraw deep within yourself to try and escape the
tension of external stress. Your feeling nature is hyperactive and you are prone to mood swings. In
addition, you are touchy and unusually receptive to others. You can be overly concerned with nurturing
others and being a caring, sympathetic individual because you need to be nourished yourself
internally. You may have experienced very unsettling conditions concerning your mother and this erratic
childhood situation could have caused you to separate yourself from your feelings as a defense
mechanism. You are also prone to intellectualize your feelings. When you finally connect with your inner
feeling self, you can be very effective in the healing field. You will then be well-suited to deal with the
public and encourage and nurture others (T-square to the Moon in Virgo, Moon square Mars/Uranus).

T-squares tend to operate on an unconscious level for most of us throughout life. They work like
"battles" we continually fight within ourselves, and in our relationships. We seem to draw the same
type of people and situations into our lives in order to work out our inner pattern. (7)

The T-square denotes the dynamic of pressure and tension which can grip the individual for a lifetime
unless resolved. The opposition at the base of the T-square is an awareness-process in which the
individual is trying to integrate the energies of the two "ends". The apex of the T-square is the dynamic
principle that is a tensional point in this integration. The opposition reflects an attempt to balance the
affectionate, harmony-loving Venus with the explosive temper of the combination of Mars and Uranus,
specifically in the area of the personality on the one hand, and the area of close one-to-one
partnership/marriage. The friction caused by interaction with other people can trigger unexpected
angry responses from him, a tumultuous disruption in the behavior pattern. There might be difficulties
in marriage, which could be a stormy affair for him. It is also possible that he experiences a love/hate
syndrome for those he cares about, causing a great deal of suffering....The T-square midpoint (the
point directly across the chart from Moon apex) and the midpoint of the Open Angle Pattern both fall in
the sign of Pisces, ruled by Neptune. The qualities here symbolize compassion, a feeling for the
oneness of all life, dissolution of all barriers. These represent the ultimate gain when the T-square is

T-sextile: Planetary Pattern
In Friend's birthchart, the t-sextile pattern between the transpersonal planets Uranus,
Neptune, and Pluto was a generational pattern and in all birthcharts of people born
between October 1942 and May 1945. The pattern formed again briefly between
December 1945 and February 1946. Perhaps not all people born during those dates will be
concerned with transpersonal values. The astrological pattern must be studied in relation to all other
factors in a person's birthchart.

A.R.E. Astrologers' Comments: T-sextile
Nine A.R.E. Astrologers commented on the subject's t-sextile pattern:

When a complete aspect pattern is formed between a number of planets, such as the triangular
pattern between Mars, Neptune and Pluto (Mars and Neptune joined by a trine, with both planets
joining Pluto by sextile) this is known as a talent triangle, and it gives a specific life pattern. To
understand its meaning you bring the meaning of each of the planets together: Mars (action), Neptune
(spiritual matters) and we have the talent potential for one who can work successfully with spiritual
transformation. Again, you should look at the Houses: Mars is in House Seven of Relationships,
Neptune is in House Eleven of Groups, Friendships and Ideals, Pluto is in House Nine, they are of
seeking Universal Truth. Hence we have a pretty powerful potentiality. (1)

Mars makes a very beneficial trine aspect to Neptune...This is the aspect that gives you the ability to
communicate in a more pleasant way. There seems to be a very strong interest in the occult and
spirituality. Neptune is quite a spiritual planet. Uranus is more the intuition, the mental part of the
psychic ability, while Neptune is more the feeling part. Both of these planets are involved with Mars,
your ascendant ruler. And both of them make good aspects to Pluto, your other ascendant ruler.
Neptune is very imaginative energy and it rules your 5th house of creativity. Both Libra and Gemini are
signs that involve communication. In addition to speaking, which I think would be one thing you would
do, writing is certainly another avenue of expression, and I would be surprised if you hadn't done that.

In your life, in order to be of service to others, you have had to overcome a desire to put yourself first.
You put great energy into your work and may at times be impatient and irritable with your co-workers.
You are headstrong and independent when it comes to your work and continuously starting something
new. Mars is conjunct Uranus trine Neptune sextile Pluto)....At some time in your life your philosophical
beliefs will undergo a radical and complete change. You are passionate and intense about deep
philosophical subjects. You have a personal investment in seeking the values of truth, honesty and the
meaning of life. All things involving deep spiritual and universal knowledge intrigue you and make you
want to dig down and explore them to the
fullest. In fact, you may become so involved with these types of subjects that you go to
extremes regarding abstract principles. (6)

Pluto is involved in a planetary pattern with is indicative of many people born within a few years of
yourself. That pattern I call a T-sextile. It is Neptune (in Libra), trine Uranus (in Gemini), both sextiling
Pluto (in Leo). Trines indicate a natural 'gifts,' and sextiles provide 'opportunities.' So, I conclude that
some of you born with this beautiful configuration of transpersonal planets will be our leaders in the
coming Age of Aquarius. How is one to know which person is the best leader to follow? 'By their fruits
we will know them.' (7)

...Mars is harmoniously aspected by Neptune and Pluto. The Mars trine to Neptune
configuration gives an easy flow of positive energy which could be used in healing work,
intuitive perception, and any creative movement (like hatha yoga, dancing). Furthermore, the Mars
connection (sextile) with Pluto gives additional regenerative abilities and a potential harmonious use
of the will and physical energy, which would help cancel out the previous challenging aspect of Moon
square Mars. The life areas enhanced by these aspects would be personal relationships (7th house),
educational, philosophical, spiritual pursuits, long-distancetravel (9th house), and friendships, group
activities, and personal life objectives (11th house). (9)

Mars/Uranus conjunction trine Neptune: A very dear friend. Compassionate and reasoning to friends
and individuals in need. Very artistic. This individual is concerned not only of others stability, but also
their own. Very creative and fruitful mind. Gentle in dealings with others. Sees both sides of an issue...
Intuition and an ability to focus in front of groups, the ability to speak with a gentle yet direct approach
comes with this. Someone who can interpret symbols and dreams...Mars/Uranus sextile Pluto: An
interest in mental health and research in diseases such as schizophrenia/multiple personality
disorders...Excellent communication skills gained through teaching and risks taken to acquire these
talents. (11)

...Neptune is gentling the explosive Mars/Uranus conjunction, and the relationship between the intellect
and Mars/Uranus confers a well-developed (that is from the deep past) gnostic faculty with occult
overtones and a creative, holistic perspective. (16)

Mars sextile Pluto: This aspect indicates great beauty in the partner, but a desire to change all old
things and bring about a completely new way of living. Mars trine Neptune: This aspect indicates that
you should very carefully examine your intuitions, thoughts and ideas about anyone you are
considering for a partner in any regard. The aspect is generally favorable , but needs some thought
and care. Neptune/Uranus sextile Pluto in 9th house: These are indicators of spiritual help from other
planes by way of dreams, visions and revelations. Careful attention should be given to these matters in
order to bring forth help for others. (17)

You are quite possibly a spiritual psychic--or could be. (Uranus trine Neptune) And, boy, do you resent
being told what to believe--whether it be spiritual or political! You want to decide for yourself. You have
an inherent distrust of politicians and want to know everything about them before you bestow your vote.
You probably think it's just fine to include their private lives in that knowledge, for history has taught you
what blindly following a charismatic leader can do. (Uranus trine Neptune) You have a fine-tuned ability
to perceive deceit and dishonesty and may at some point actively participate in the political process.
Freedom is one of your most important possessions. (Uranus sextile Pluto)... You are very articulate
and can be a dramatic speaker who is able to hold your listeners attention. You are just as articulate
about your intentions or position on any question and appreciate the same directness from others.
Subtlety to you is a waste of time. You have strong opinions and are forceful in communicating them. It
would behoove you to be willing to compromise, though; once in a while, someone else has a good
idea, too. (Mars sextile Pluto) (18)

Psychological Awareness  
Birthchart synthesis provides psychological awareness. Historically, astrology could
be considered the "mother" of psychology, as well as philosophy, astronomy, and
theology (see Parkers, pp.10-45).

Florence Estep (1961) explained one way astrology is applied in the field of
psychology: "Modern astrologers have developed systems of reading the horoscope
[birthchart] to show the underlying complexes and compulsions of the individual,
as well as his social adaptability (p. 5).

In psychological astrology, planetary patterns do indicate "the underlying complexes
and compulsions of the individual, as well as his social adaptability." A discussion
of planetary patterns is an important part of birthchart synthesis.

Orb Allowance
Fifteen of the A.R.E astrologers did not discuss the yod pattern. They may have
omitted discussing this important planetary pattern because of orb allowance. An
orb is the distance variance between planets. If the distance variance is too wide
in their estimation, astrologers ignore the aspect or pattern.

For instance, a sextile is exactly 60 degrees. Some astrologers will determine that
five degrees on either side of 60 ( from 55 to 65 degrees) is an "allowable orb" for
a sextile aspect.

Robert Hand (1981) wrote that a sextile aspect (60 degrees) is considered if planets
were from 57 to 63 degrees apart; a three degree orb (p. 111). In the subject's case,
Jupiter and Saturn are 64 degrees, 35 minutes apart.

Yet, Myrna Lofthus (1983) allowed a six degree orb for the sextile aspect and a four
degree orb for the quincunxes in a yod pattern (p. 252).

As in other astrological decisions, the answer to orbs depends on the astrologers'
viewpoint. Bil Tierney (1983) explained that orbs of influence must be extended for
planetary patterns, such as a yod, when the apex planet is the midpoint of the other
two (p. 148).

I suggest, because one of the quincunxes from the Sun to Jupiter and Saturn is
applying (will occur after birth), the yod pattern becomes more significant and the orb
allowance for the sextile from Jupiter to Saturn should be exempt from Hand's three
degree rule.

The yod pattern is a dynamic source of energy in Friend's life concerning ego
consciousness, career, finances, publishing, society, his extension of self towards the
world, and his attitudes toward his limitations within the world. I believe that the yod
is one key to Friend's unfolding consciousness and transpersonal awareness. It affects
his insights, motivations, attitudes, will, and choices in life.

The Transpersonal Approach
Admittedly influenced by the psychology of Carl Jung, Dane Rudhyar (1970)
concluded, "...the first and immediate purpose of astrology is not to predict events in
terms of statistical probability, but to bring to confused, eager, often distraught
persons a message of order, of 'form,' of the meaning of individual life and individual
struggles in the process of self-actualization....The goal of astrology is the alchemy of
personality" (p.xiv).

In Rudhyar's earlier books, he compared the purposes of astrology to those of
humanistic psychology. However, in The Astrology of Personality (1970), the
following statements are comparable to two principles of transpersonal philosophy;
oneness and wholeness. He wrote:
...the fact is that essentially related to psychology, and its main purpose is to contribute to
the successful completion of the Great Work of man--that by which man reaches fulfillment and
operative wholeness, and as a result becomes an organic function or cell within a greater Whole --the
'Greater Individual' or the 'Planetary Individual,' or the Seed-Manu, or the Logos, or God--as one may
wish to name this next greater Whole of which the spiritually perfected human personality becomes a
part (p. 400).

An Example of Synthesis
One A.R.E. astrologer wrote:
The thinking can be far reaching and open to influences from beyond the earth, but there is also a
sense of nebulousness and uncertainty. There can also be a susceptibility to the illusions and the
escapist tendencies that Neptune can bring. For Neptune is a transpersonal influence, and this can
present difficulties to the ego-personality consciousness, which can be eroded. The ego's defenses
can lie in drink or narcotics or in other forms of escapism, and there can be confusions in relationships
and in the definition of boundaries between self and others...But
Neptune also brings compassion, illumination and universal love, accessible through prayer and the
Ideal. Without the opening of self to some form of spiritual guidance, it would have been almost
impossible for you to come through. In that opening, however, you found healing, and in turn became a
healing force in the lives of others; all the greater because you were the 'wounded healer', who could
put his gifts of knowledge and his unusual personal insights, at the disposal of those in need (1).

Birthchart synthesis goes beyond listing what one already knows about oneself:
personality traits, virtues, and faults. The astrologer tries to reach into the "soul" of
another; to connect, affirm, and inspire one to be the best one can be. Birthchart
analysis begins with oneself (personal). Birthchart synthesis begins with interpersonal
relationships: how a person's attitudes and behavior affects others. An astrologer,
through questions, statements, or metaphors, may stimulate the subject to probe more
deeply into his own attitudes, motives, and behavior as well as give him a picture of
how others may be viewing him. For example, noting the t-square pattern in the
subject's birthchart, an astrologer might question the subject: "Have you noticed any
repeating conditions (patterns) in your life concerning relationships, particularly with
females?" Or, as one A.R.E. Astrologer stated: "I believe this person could be acting
and behaving in a way that works against or moves against what he or she desires in
partnership situations. "

Concerning how the subject may appear to others, one Astrologer wrote:

"...the picture that we get is one of a brilliant flowering cactus which everyone loves to look at, but
doesn't dare touch; it's too prickly. One fears that one may come away bleeding." (7)

The subject may question himself concerning the above statements: "How am I
behaving that makes someone afraid to "touch" me? When has someone gone away
"bleeding" after "touching" (contacting) me? Is this a repeating/destructive pattern of
behavior in my life?" It is through the subject's inner search for answers that he begins
to tread the path Rudyar called "the alchemy of personality." For, it is through
knowing and cultivating his own personality that he approaches the alchemical: from
personal knowledge, to enhancing interpersonal relationships, to transpersonal
consciousness. A competent astrologer can do more for a client through birthchart
synthesis than strict analysis. Analysis tends to break apart the personality into bits
and pieces. Synthesis attempts to envision the whole personality expressed in patterns
of relationship to a larger whole.

Definition of Transits
Transits occur as the planets' positions, from one's birth, continue to advance through
the Zodiac--making aspects to the birthchart angles (ascendant and midheaven) and
planets. The observation of transits is one method that astrologers use to determine a
changing time or event in the client's life. Most professional astrologers do not
consider themselves as predictors of fated events or fortunetellers. In fact, one A.R.E.
astrologer made a statement which sums up the attitude of many modern astrologers,
myself included:

Now we'll move on to what most people consider to be the most interesting part of the reading--the
future. I want to make it very clear at this point, that I cannot predict future events, I can only see
influences or certain types of energy that will be activating your natal horoscope. Then I speculate or
make a few educated guesses about how those influences might affect your life. Through years of
astrological study and statistical data, it has been found that certain influences usually result in similar
activity, but much depends on your attitude and the choices that you have already made in life (4).
In addition, one's current choices are also very important when dealing with current
transits and their energies. Choices may be aligned with one's "ideal" and "will."
Edgar Cayce said, "...but let it be understood here--no action of any planet or the phases of the sun,
the moon or any of the heavenly bodies surpass the rule of man's willpower...The inclinations of man
are ruled by the planets under which he is born..." (3744). We are "inclined" toward certain attitudes,
behavior, or choices, but not compelled. Choice is always the most important factor in the results of
any planetary transit, whether the choice be in one's attitude, behavior, or will to change.  

A.R.E.Astrologers' Transit Reports
The A.R.E. astrologers were invited to send a list of the current transits along with
their analyses. All of the astrologers but one complied. Current transits covered the
time period from Summer/Fall of 1990 to 1992.

Ten astrologers reported on the current transits of five planets: Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. One astrologer added Mars to the other five in the
transit report. The other nine astrologers reported on from two to four transits;
most frequently Saturn and Pluto.

19 included Saturn transit natal Sun.
17 included Pluto transit the ascendant.
16 included Uranus.
16 included Jupiter and Neptune.
4 included Mars.

One astrologer wrote a page of forecasting without noting which planets were

The Transit of Pluto
Concerning Pluto transiting the ascendant, Howard Sasportas (1989) wrote:
Pluto transiting the ascendant and first house brings to light our hidden depths, what has been
'underground' in us, and breaks up previous complexes or rigid patterns of behaviour. This is a  time of
discovery, cleansing and renewal, a fertile period for any form of self-exploration or self-development
(p. 307). Sasportas also explained that Pluto energy seems to enable one to change directions in life,
"conservatives turn liberal; and liberals turn conservative." Some people who are happily single get
married; some married people get divorced. Many times, people change in their physical appearance.
Since the ascendant represents the physical body, physical changes are probable when the
ascendant is contacted by transit.

The A.R.E. Astrologers' Consensus: Pluto
The following is a composite of some astrologers' comments concerning the transit
of Pluto (conjunct) and the subject's ascendant at 15 degrees, 02 minutes of Scorpio.
This conjunction was exact between January 22, 1989 and August 9, 1990, but in
effect through 1992.
Pluto also rules the Scorpio Ascendant of your birth chart, and indeed has recently moved over this
point by transit. There have therefore been changes in your relationships, and in the manner of
relating...Pluto is concerned with elimination...Potentially...a period of crisis...(1). marks potential for a total, complete psychic and spiritual housecleaning (2).

Pluto and Scorpio represent regeneration, so you may feel that part of your life has died away and you
are making a rebirth (4).

It was a confrontational time; especially with a marriage--or a close relationship would have been
greatly tested (5).

The 'identity crises' you have experienced in the past will finally be resolved with this Pluto transit. You
will finally become comfortable with the extremely sensitive, magnetic, powerful, penetrating nature of
your personality (6).

Pluto energy is also knocking at your physical body, getting you to possibly want to create and/or try
other forms of health care...(7).

There is a compulsion to transform the personal expression, mannerisms, and even the physical
appearance--to reflect the profound inner changes that are occurring (9).
Frequent changes in physical appearance will be typical for this one. A stronger self-esteem will be
present. This use of willpower may also be used to change the physical body (11).

...there can be a tremendous transformation process going on as Pluto digs into the
underpinnings of the personality and grinds away to test the structure (12).

...a slow purging of the life, the goals of the life, career, and it seems to effect all the angles: the roots,
the family, the relationships, and the actual identity of the person himself is totally changing (13). enhanced charisma, great gains in leadership roles, penetrating insights, opening up of new
resources, and the fulfillment of hard-gained goals...a possible separation or break-up of a marriage
or partnership, and possibly a shift of vision in long-term goals (16).

The old you is being discarded (possibly kicking and screaming at times) so that a new you can
emerge...You are struggling to claim your own power and to really be the Self that you can be. And you
will do it. A bright and brilliant Phoenix will arise from the ashes (18).

Much of that new cycle this year will have to do with relationships. There will be an identity crisis...the
individual is going to continually break free from the past and that includes all the past, traditions,

Although the crisis situation may have occurred in August, 1990, the changes will continue through
1992 as the deeper meanings are integrated through a process of unburying hidden conflicts, angers,
resentments, and even memories of abuse or ungrieved deaths (20).

The issues confronting the subject concern his physical body, identity crisis, relationships, career,
elimination, purging, regeneration, and transformation.

Between October 1991 and September 1992 I interviewed the birthchart subject on
four separate occasions. Those interviews were audio taped and amounted to four
hours in length.

The First Interview: October 1991 I asked Friend whether some of the 20 analyses
were more helpful than others. Friend replied:

"A few astrologers gave me a structure, a main thing, or main theme, or main aspect, around which to
organize the rest of the information...for example, one said at the beginning, the main thing is your t-
square...and that at least gave me a focus, so that I could feel that some aspects were more important
than others, or gave me an initial place to put my foot into the chart so that I could begin to ask
questions. Without this, I had but a list of aspects with  interpretations, little tid-bits of facts about me,
some positive and exciting, others depressing, some scary. So I would pay attention to them
according to their emotional impact and not necessarily according to their degree of overall influence."

Friend confirmed that structure and focus in astrological, analytic approach were more
appreciated than listing personality traits and seemingly isolated interpretations. He
pointed out that, initially, an astrologer's focus on a particular topic or area of the
birthchart (or issue of one's life) provided clarity and understanding.

The Second Interview: December 1991 I was concerned about the impact of so
much information on Friend. When I began the project, I found that I could read only
two or three reports at one sitting. After that, I would become restless and headachy.
When I questioned Friend about this, he replied:

"After reading a few charts, I began to get overloaded, about what did all of this mean?....Interesting
[though] to read all the different interpretations of a given aspect, as it showed me there was not one
single meaning, and encouraged me to look up some references and begin to try to have a feeling for
what an aspect meant."

Clearly, Friend was very serious in his intent to learn exactly what purpose
astrological analysis could serve in his search for self-knowledge and awareness.
Although "overloaded" with information, he continued researching other references to
further clarify and understand the material. He appreciated the diversity of opinions
and regarded the variable perspectives as an advantage in his growing understanding
of astrological analysis.

The Third Interview: May 1992
Because so many of the astrologers used the term "emotional," I questioned the
subject about his emotions. He said that in many situations he depended on the
females in his life to "tell me how I really feel." His comment supported Astrologer
16's observation that the subject "was not in touch with his emotions."

Stage Personality vs Everyday Personality
I attended a lecture given by the subject, Friend. I observed Friend's charisma with
an audience. He seemed to have a different personality on stage than I had observed
at our other meetings. I questioned him about his "stage personality."

Friend stated,
"I'm a completely different person when on stage than I am at home." This duality
between his "home" attitude and stage appearance is denoted by Mars, the ascendant
co-ruler, in the communicative, dual sign of Gemini.

The Fourth Interview: September 1992
After reading, again, all of the astrologers' forecasts (made between December 1990
and May 1991) concerning the Pluto transit, Friend said that the astrologers were
"right on" in describing the conditions in his life. He is experiencing deep changes and
his main concerns are with his body as well as self-identity, relationships, and career.
Friend said that he recently became involved in three types of on-going physical
therapies including Rolfing, osteopathic body work, and physical therapy. Rolfing is
an intensive (sometimes painful) structural integration therapy which attempts to reach
and release buried emotions through body manipulation. All of these therapies are
indicative of Pluto on the ascendant even though it has been two years since the
exactitude of the transit. Rolfing is particularly "Plutonian" in its intensity and purpose.

Pluto Transit and Elimination
During the Pluto transit, one of Friend's physical "eliminations" was smoking
cigarettes; he quit smoking in April 1989. He also reported that January 1989 began
a "Limbo time" in his life. Since Pluto is sometimes referred to as "Lord of the
Underworld," Friend's "Limbo time" seemed a perfect description of Plutonian energy.
He mentioned the "Phoenix" metaphor in astrologer 18's report. He said that the
"ashes" effect related, perhaps, to the death of his old self-concept. Through the
various physical therapies, Friend is taking positive steps that were indicated by the
intense Pluto energy transiting his ascendant.

Scorpio: A Fixed Sign
Scorpio is called a "fixed" sign; others are Taurus, Leo, and Aquarius. Fixed is a
good term for a basic attitude of the fixed signs: "if it isn't broken, don't fix it!" Notably
, the fixed signs represent the most adverse attitude to change or changing conditions.
In the September 1992 interview, I told Friend that he had transiting Saturn opposing
his midheaven between May 1992 and January 1993. He could expect a changing or
ending situation in his life during that time. I explained that he could consciously
choose what situation to change or end. I quoted Carl Jung who said that energy
which remained unconscious within ourselves tended to manifest outwardly in what
we called "fate." Friend could lessen this "fatedness" through his conscious choice.
His reply, "What if I nail my shoes to the floor?" Only a fixed sign would express a
question with an analogy of so much tenacity. I jokingly replied that if he nailed his
shoes to the floor, he might be yanked right out of them by a greater force called
"Fate." Pluto was a long-term transit with many far-reaching outgrowths. In Friend's
case, the present Saturn transit denotes the ending factor of his life changes. When he
sought physical therapies, his shoes were no longer "nailed to the floor." Whatever
internal changes the Pluto transit represented to him, the Saturn transit will enable him
to manifest or structure in his outer life.

A primary purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the 20 astrological analyses by
comparing and contrasting through the three criteria of competence: accuracy,
analysis, and synthesis. High-Quality Analyses Eleven of the 20 analyses (55%) were
calculated accurately and were of high quality in analysis and synthesis as outlined
in the criteria of competence.

Flawed Analyses Six of the analyses were flawed for various reasons. One astrologer
explained that his offering was just a "sample;" not a complete analysis. However,
I could not evaluate or compare the sample to the others because it was so limited.
Four of the six analyses were structured like computer reports. They contained listed
analyses, but little or no personal insight or synthesis. One report was off by five
minutes on the ascendant, as well as not listing the requested transits.

Inaccurate Calculations
Four of the astrologers were inaccurate in calculating the birthchart. One of the four
inaccurate calculations was included in the Flawed Analyses results above.
85% Of the Astrologers On Target Concerning Career
One of the greatest similarities among the 20 analyses concerned the subject's career.
This study shows that 85% of the participating astrologers identified the subject's
occupation or career tendencies. These opinions were based on Capricorn Sun sign
(Sun ruling the midheaven/career) in the third house. Indeed, the subject is a teacher,
author, and speaker.

85% "Right On" Concerning the Pluto Transit 85% of the astrologers accurately
forecasted the subject's life conditions reflected by the Pluto transit. This was verified
through interviews with the subject.

Limitations of Written Analysis
One of the limitations of written or audio taped birthchart analysis, with no
one-on-one consultation, is that the subject does not have the opportunity to question
the astrologer for clarification. Too, the astrologer receives no immediate feedback
concerning any stated opinion or viewpoint. One astrologer wrote, "I do not do charts
like this--I do phone charts; it's interesting to speculate, but unless you get feedback
you're really not sure about all of it." There are many levels of meaning for any one
factor in a birthchart. In a one-on-one consultation, the level and interests of the
subject is readily communicated. In addition, there are almost an infinite number of
astrological combinations that are possible in birthcharts. Doris Chase Doane (1956)
wrote: ...12 signs, 10 planets, 12 horoscope houses and 10 aspects are the factors
upon which chart erection and delineation are based. The least possible number of
different combination resulting from these four groups of astrological factors is:
5.393705 X 10 68 (p. 1). She expressed this enormous amount in numbers:
(p. 2). It is amazing to me that the 20 analyses are similar at all, given the vast number
of possible combinations and the many levels of meaning for any one combination.

Advantage in 20 Analyses
The advantage of having more than one astrological analysis (in this rare case, 20) is
that, in comparing the viewpoints of the various interpretations, one develops a better
understanding of the complexity concerning any one factor of a personality and
psyche ("personality" meaning the qualities others observe; "psyche" meaning the inner
life of the person). Each astrologer approaches an analysis differently because each
astrologer is a different person with different backgrounds, interests, abilities, and

Comments on the Astrologers' Competence
It was surprising to me that four of the astrologers were incorrect in their calculations.
All of the astrologers had the chance to revise their calculations after examining all of
the other astrologers' work. In a research project such as this, I expected that all of
the astrologers would calculate the birthchart correctly. It is easy to validate the
accuracy of a birthchart. For under five dollars, a birthchart can be calculated by a
reputable computer service.
Eleven of the astrological reports were of high-quality according to the criteria of
competence. However, I considered four of the eleven reports more excellent
because their birthchart synthesis included discussions of both the yod and t-square
planetary patterns.

Finding a Competent Astrologer

Astrologers should be chosen with consideration. Robert Hand (1981) wrote,
"...genuinely enlightened teachers are indeed better sources of guidance than most
astrologers" (p. 19). The above statement seems rather critical of astrologers, but
might be kept in mind when choosing an astrologer. Of course, it is indeed possible
to find an astrologer who is also a "genuinely enlightened teacher." More often, an
astrologer transmits information, not advice or teachings. Nevertheless, some people
have read one or two books on astrology, or bought an astrology software program
and gone into the "Horoscope" business. Since the advent of computers, anyone can
set up a birthchart and, with a "gift of gab," call oneself an astrologer--charging
substantial fees for birthchart readings. In most states there are no laws restricting or
certifying astrologers. The old adage "buyer beware" is appropriate for anyone
desiring an astrological analysis including private consultations, or mail, telephone,
and audio taped reports.

Just a Beginning...
A written or audio taped birthchart analysis is just a beginning or introduction into the
enlightening field of astrology and can not take the place of a one-on-one consultation
with a competent astrologer. Astrologers who are dedicated to Edgar Cayce's
philosophy are familiar with this teaching:

Know in self that in giving a helpful influence, the magnifying of virtues in others and the
minimizing of faults is the beginning of wisdom in dealing with others. Not that the evil influence is
denied, but rather that force within self is stressed which when called upon is so powerful that those
influences about self may never hinder (2630-1).
A consultation with a competent, caring astrologer can be an uplifting and rewarding
experience. Many people have claimed that the experience was a positive catalyst in
changing their lives.

Personal Belief
Even though I am a professional astrologer, I don't believe that the "stars" control
my life. However, I consider the continuing study of my birthchart as a guide for
psychological/spiritual insight in making choices. As I grow in awareness, my question
has evolved from "What's going to happen in my life...?", to "What can I  create in my
life...?" Edgar Cayce said that the birthchart is more a picture of where one has been
(in past lives), rather than where one is going (in the present life). One's ideal, will,
and choices affect the outcome of one's destiny. I truly believe that we create much
of our destinies. A birthchart is, simply, a map to guide us in creating better ones:


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